APA Citation

APA Online Help

OWL at Purdue: APA Formatting and Style Guide -- Possibly the best online guide for basic APA style questions.

APA Flash Tutorial -- covers the basics of complete paper preparation

DOIs

DOI is an abbreviation for Document Object Indentifier. Think of DOIs as a "barcode" for an article. They are a unique identifier for the item.
Sample DOI -- doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2009.05.004
A DOI resolver will give anyone a citation for a doi number. Try it out here.
The DOI is in lowercase and followed by a colon, with no space between the colon and the number.  The DOI (or URL) will usually be the last piece of information in a reference list citation for electronic items, but there is no period at the end of either.
 
  • Use a DOI instead of a URL, if the DOI is given.   DOIs are usually found in a database citation view, or in the link to a full text document.
  • Use a URL only when there isn't a DOI number
    • If the article is published, the URL of the journal website is enough -- you don't need an exact URL.
    • If the article is a not published, or from a newsletter or some other hard-to-find publication, then an exact URL that you retrieved the content from should be used.
  • You do not need a retrieval date.

What's APA Style?

APA is the style based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It is the standard style guide for much of the social sciences, and is frequently used in psychology and education classes. The most recent APA edition is the 6th. 

General Rules for APA

  • Author names: Unlike MLA, full author names are never used.

Smith, Donald R.

  • Titles: In APA, book and journal titles have different formats. In books, every significant word is capitalized. For journal articles, only the first word and first word following a colon for a subtitle are capitalized.

Gone with the Wind

Spotting animals in natural scenes: Efficiency of humans and monkeys at very low contrasts

  • Ending a reference in a reference list

Do not put a period after a DOI number or a URL, even though it comes at the end of a reference.

 See the Reference tab for more detailed examples.

An exercise

Copy and paste to correct these actual database citations into a Word document. Correct the APA errors. Add two sources of your own to create a References section.


Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.


Redford, J. S. (2010). HUMANS AND MONKEYS EXERT METACOGNITIVE CONTROL BASED ON LEARNING DIFFICULTY IN A PERCEPTUAL CATEGORIZATION TASK. Psychological Record, 60(4), 563-575. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.


Begley, S. (2011). Can You Build a Better Brain? (Cover story). Newsweek, 157(2/3), 40-45. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Last Update: 19 Jul 08:02 | Tagged with: psychology APA